Adventure Travel Abroad

How Can Galaxies Travel Faster Than Light?

How Can Galaxies Travel Faster Than Light?

The universe is a very dynamic place. Once
thought to be static and unchanging, the cosmos roils with activity. Clusters of galaxies spin and twirl in a dance
of unprecedented scale, and all of it occurring in an ever expanding ballroom. But how do we know this? How do we know these
galaxies are interacting in such a way? We know the stars and galaxies are moving
because we can see their light compress and expand as they move through the heavens. A
star or galaxy moving towards us has a spectrum that is shifted to the blue as compared with
a stationary spectrum, and red shifted if the object is moving away. There are three ways light from celestial
objects can be shifted and the amount is usually denoted by a dimensionless number, z: The first way is known as Doppler shifts and
is due to the proper motions of the stars and galaxies relative to each other, for example,
the Andromeda Galaxy has a spectrum that is blue shifted because it is heading straight
towards our galaxy. Doppler shifts are usually small with a value of z less than one. The second way light can be shifted is called
a gravitational shift, and it us usually caused by light leaving a luminous body that is near
an object lith a large mass, such as a black hole or neutron star. The third way is the most interesting, cosmological
redshift, and it is caused by the expanding universe. Photons leaving a distant galaxy
are stretched by expanding space-time – always towards the red – and the amount of shift
is directly related to its distance from us. Astronomers know which of these three is in
effect by the object being observed. A moving nearby star or galaxy will exhibit a shift
due to the Doppler effect. A star or other luminous object near something with lots of
mass will have its spectrum shifted due to gravity, while very distant galaxies will
always have a redshift due to universal expansion. So how can there be measured redshifts greater
than the speed of light? It turns out that an object moving at the speed of light would
have a measured redshift of about 1.4 and would lie 4200 million parsecs away. Two galaxies,
moving relative to each other, are bound by the laws of relativity, so 1.4 would be about
the largest doppler redshift that can be recorded and the photons left that star or galaxy 4.6
billion years after the Big Bang. Any galaxy moving away from us with a z greater
than 1.4 is moving away from us at faster than the speed of light. Paradoxically, the
Hubble Space Telescope routinely measures galaxies with cosmological redshifts of 8
or more. How is this possible? While the laws of relativity DO limit the
speed of two or more galaxies moving in relation to one another, the expansion of spacetime
is NOT bound by this limit. Relativity places no limits on the speed with
which creation can expand. The farther a galaxy is from us, the faster it is travelling. The
most distant galaxies measured so far are around z=8, the light left those galaxies
when the universe was only 600 million years old. So how can we possibly see the light from
these galaxies if they are traveling so fast? The answer is that the motion of a galaxy
NOW has no effect whatsoever on the light it emitted billions of years ago. The photon
that is travelling towards us has no knowledge of what the galaxy does after it leaves, it
is affected only by the increasing amount of spacetime as it travels. At the moment photons are emitted from very
distant galaxies, they are not traveling faster than light. But as the galaxy continues to
recede, and it has picked up speed until its redshift was greater than 1.4, any photons
would not be able to outrun the galaxy. We would observe the galaxy freeze, then slowly
fade away. Our current value of the Hubble constant says
that for every megaparsec of distance between two galaxies, the apparent speed at which
the two of them move apart increases by 71 km/sec. The implications for this are rather
bleak. Because of universal acceleration, any galaxies that are currently moving from
us at faster than light, will ALWAYS be doing so. Once a galaxy says its last goodbye, we
will never hear from it again.

Reader Comments

  1. If all known matter in our universe was created/ ejected/ propelled from/by the Big Bang (ie a single point or source) then all resultant matter must be following unique trajectories from that centre- away from that centre, so how can one galaxy change direction and head towards us rather than continue on it’s predetermined path directly away from that centre. Gravity?

  2. So in theory, if you did 0.99c for long enough, eventually you would be moving away from Earth faster than light, because the space you're in also has a velocity relative to Earth, which is more than the remaining 0.01c.

  3. It can be explained with a simple thought experiment.
    1) Lets say that any two points of space are moving apart at one meter per second.
    2) Lets say this is true for all points of space in a line.
    3) This means that the nearest points are moving apart at 1m/s, the next by 2m/s, the next by 3m/s, and so on.
    4) So if the line is 300 million points wide? the furthest points must be moving apart at 300,000 km/second.
    5) You've just passed he speed of light, and thats only 300 million points, the universe may be infinitely bigger.

  4. What I could hear of your explanation seemed clear (music louder than your voice).

    That is, until the part about the photons not knowing what the galaxy does after they leave it. I get that part, but why, then would the photons show a red shift > 1.4? In fact, if a galaxy is moving away faster than light, how would we see it at all? The photons would just hang in space, or even recede from us, since they only move at light speed.

    You did seem to hint at this, saying the galaxy would eventually fade away from our sight.

  5. Why does the universe expand faster than light ? To prevent us from "seeing" what absolutely nothing looks like (what it expands into, a boundary to it). Btw, how can serious scientists say that "something" (that which isn't absolutely nothing) can be infinite ? That is only possible in mathematics and philosophy (then defined into existence by us), not in physics. The only "state" which hypothetically can be infinite is absolutely nothing, because it can't have any boundaries (then something would have to exist outside).

  6. Tony you should narrate ALL space videos. There is no better voice out there for this. I still like David Attenborough for my nature videos though lol.

  7. The only thing I got out of this was to never see the Galaxy again.. who sees it next then? 😜 Spectrum and 1.6 or .07 sorry now I’m daydreaming. Bring in the Aliens to warp space time so we can see the furthest galaxies. Why does humanity have such a hard on about the BIG BANG Theory? It’s just that. A Theory.

  8. Above the speed of light the equation for speed or velocity changes to t/s, instead of s/t. Study the the Reciprocal System and prove it for yourself.

  9. I was thinking nothing can go faster than light but here even Galaxies travel faster than light. I was like WTF I'm in blackhole or what?🤔🤔🤔🤔

  10. We are travelling faster than light relative to other celestial objects travelling parallel to us. Maybe space travel isn’t about moving away relative to earth but a ship removing our ties to earth and staying still relative to another object.

  11. this is really logical. therefore, is it pointles to make spaceship faster than speed of light to find new home like earth? because we'never catch up? i think therefore it is pointless.

  12. When z=1.4 the speed of galaxy flying away becomes equal to the speed of light. After that its speed increases to greater than the speed of light so photon emitted form it would never reach us. So how does Hubble telescope measure z=8 for far away galaxies?

  13. A photon released from a galaxy 4 billion years ago.
    What's the guarantee that it exists today. There might not be any.

  14. My question has always been "If everything started out at the same place (big bang),then how did we get HERE such that it now takes 13.5 Billion years for the light from the Big Bang to get here?

  15. This is good from a relativistic stance. But we aren't the center of the universe, nor are we static. The milky way is also moving through the universe. Relative to us a galaxy could appear moving faster than the speed of light because we also are moving

  16. What I don’t understand. Is how do you get this measurement. While we meaning the Milky Way galaxy along with our own solar system is moving in the complete opposite direction. It would be like a cop car trying to use a radar gun measuring the speed of a car traveling in opposite directions from one another.

  17. One fact is that Universe is Infinitive as the Time , it was no beginning or is no end to it , it is paradox , even if our current stage of Universe had begin at some point of the past , scientist also calling Time zero , when everything started ( Big bang ) , but time did exist before that same as entire space in witch current Universe we living in is expanding , beginning does not exist same as end , it could drive you insane those facts , can not be comprehended by our stage of reality , Scientist trying to explain very hard what happen and what is happening but the space that's current Universe expanding to, always existed even before Big Bang , it is infinitive state !
    Just recently in our history few decades ago we discovered that is not our Milky way entire Universe we know but out here are trillions of more Galaxies all kind , that number could be definitive but the entire Universe or space our Universe is expanding in to has Infinitive number of Universes and Galaxies or some other type of dimension but is infinitive that's good enough to know !

  18. I wonder if it is possible that Bootes Void is actually a section of our universe which is traveling away from us at faster than light which would explain why it is dark. It just happens to be a lot closer to us than everything else at the event horizon.

  19. This is a great video. I didn't know we could observe anything moving away faster than the speed of light. How fast past the spees of light until we no longer see it?
    Before this video i wondered if we would start to see galaxies as the light made it to us. But know it seems they will just start disappearing. Not that any of this affects us

  20. Anything that travel at light speed will turn into light energy or at least where there is air resistance. If there is no air resistance in space with an unknown force to push it past 'light speed', then I guess it might be possible. What begs the question, is what would that force be, other than from the Big Bang? …And how does it go faster and faster over time, long after the Big Bang? I think, somebody's instruments is lying to them, (with a lack of understanding), and basing it on hypothesis and theories, that make no sense. Usually things set into motion in space, stays at a relative constant set speed.

  21. When you take matter or energy and go on a straight line at speed of light or beyond then they curve. Most quantum particles curve.


  23. Pretty sad that we'll never see or ever visit faraway galaxies, we can't even explore our own yet. Just imagine the things that could be discovered on exo-planets in other galaxies. I seriously think now there could be aliens like the Xenomorphs on other worlds, just based on the laws of physics and the different arrangements of elements in other places. As the saying goes, reality is even stranger and more amazing than our wildest imagination.

  24. I find it hard to believe that the universe is expanding at that velocity based on red shifts, perhaps there is an unknown accumulative phenomena that interferes with the wavelength other than this dark energy that is antigravity like.

  25. So, if the light we are seeing is unaware of what its galaxy is doing now, how do we see the red and not the initial colour? Plus, there was no consideration for the speed at which our galaxy is also moving away from the big bang. If we are travelling in that same direction as our perceived red light then that galaxy is moving at the same speed as us plus the greater than light speed indicated by its redness. Wouldn't it be a lot easier to say that we aren't really sure?

  26. I don't understand why you would stop seeing the light from a galaxy when it travels faster than the speed of light. Surly that would only happen if we where moving away from the light source at greater than the speed of light?. Not sure if that I mean is clear 🙂

  27. Come on man! Dont be teaching something you dont even know, There are already astronomers very talented and still they cant hardly understand wats going on over there, There are theories, just theories, Man lost his powers , this planet is cursed, Your not blind, Are you? People kill each other, and others want to rule others, You have no power to understand the Universe.

  28. It was an okay video until they introduced the concept of time, because time is just a measurement and instrumentality will never bring about a realization of what apace actually is.

  29. Universe is like a really beautiful
    woman, you can look at it all you
    want but never will reach to it.

  30. The answer to all those questions including the Big Bang and the expansion of the universes are clearly given in the verbatim book of the creator, the Holy Quraan as well as in the sayings of God’s last Messenger, Mohammad, who gave detailed knowledge about the universes and I say universes as there are seven universes not just one. Here is a detailed saying about the seven universes that God’s final Messenger told us about:
    All what we know including all the galaxies we have come to know are in the first universe only and the distance from the first universe to the second is 500 years and 500 years between each of the rest up to the seventh universe. All that is in the first universe compared to the second universe is like a ring in a desert. Universes 1+2 compared to the 3rd. are like a ring in a desert. Universes 1, 2, and 3 compared to the 4th. are like a ring in a desert. Universes 1, 2, 3 and 4 compared to the 5th. are like a ring in a desert. Universes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 compared to the 6th. are like a ring in a desert. Universes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 compared to the 7th. are like a ring in a desert. All the seven universes compared to the chair of God are like a ring in a desert. The seven universes and the chair compared to the throne of God are like a ring in a desert. The seven universes and the chair and God’s throne compared to the knowledge of God are like a ring in a desert. Now imagine how small we humans are compared to the Almighty God who created all the vastness of the universes and what’s in them. Read the verbatim book of God where all the secrets of God’s creations are revealed and read about God’s last and final Messenger who was sent by God to all mankind telling them what is required of them to earn God’s pleasure and approval…

  31. "Galaxies are not moving faster than light " I begg your pardon on this. But the "speed of light", the speed of light is slowed down through a gravitational field which is not the case through quantum gravity and gravitational time-like singularity. This does not mean that somethings move faster than light. But simply means that energy coordination and regulation as a function of the speed of light is different here and there. In gravitational field light coordinated and regulated through photons, in quantum gravity light is coordinated and regulated through graviton, with gravitational time-like singularity energy is coordinated and regulated through higg's boson.
    However, though nothing moves faster than light, but there are some regions of the universe where the distances of light travel is the same regardless of differences in time intervals of gravitational frameworks as a function of mass-matter-energy conversion and conservation. These regions are called singularities. One can speculated that distances are shortened in time when it comes to travelling through singularities.
    But singularities are still one of the least studies regions of the universe. Yes there is prediction of space-time singularity, proper time/vortical singularity and time-like singularity by relativity and complexity theory. But space-time and vortical singularities are still light years away in distance from us. The closest singularity to us ever predicted is the time-like singularity, and its miracle paradox is that, while the distance between galaxies is expanding at an accelerating rate in space, the distance in time remains the same regardless of accelerating expansion. And since the speed of light is invariant through space-time, no galaxy "CAN" move beyond light of move faster than the speed of light. Through quantum limits, we can tap into time-like singularity through entanglement. But We can only travel information through entanglement. In classical mechanics, we can tap into time-like singularity through worm holes inform of unified space-time singularity and vortical singularity. But worm holes are still light years from us.and we can only travel super fluids through wormholes. In semiclassical limits, one can speculate that we can tap into time-like singularity through aether. But aether is still one of the most ill defined phenomena which makes it hardly testable. But there is a bright future of its testability through equilateral geometry. And once this research area is completed, we could be able to travel across all galaxies through time-like singularity without worrying at moving at monstrous faster than light speeds.

  32. The reason there is so much confusion about light speed and the universe is that the matter contained in the universe is expanding yet also spinning (rotating), and the space the universe is contained in is spinning and expanding. Yes, light itself spins and expands with the space it's in. It has to in order to stay relative to it's source. Where science falls short is in it's lack of understanding of light. There are many kinds of light. We always hear about category 2 light- light that radiates out from a source. The first light has a location, but does not radiate light. We say this all the time when we say something IS light. Since this light doesn't radiate, we don't see the light or the source – I.e. Invisibility.
    Some radiating light is invisible, but only to us (simple limitation of the human eyes), like infra-red. And had a whole elated fielder know little about.

    If the observer is the one thing not spinning and expanding, then that is the creator. Therefore everything is relative to the observer- the creator. So the TRUE unified theory of relativity exists with God. So simple my children all know this by heart.

    Sound is only vibrations until there is an ear to hear it and translate it. Same with light. The one kind of light we see was created just for our eyes. Remember, we see no objects, only the light they reflect and only the light our eyes were designed to pick up. We actually see less than 1% of all light.

    Wrap your heads around that for a while.

  33. This is amazing……I thought a universal law couldn't be broken   I guess we're still in a learning curve.

  34. All these explanations and im still trying to understand how you measure the distance you've traveled when you don't even have a clue as to where we began…

  35. One more thing to add. When the sun is viewed at noon it appears
    white. At sunset it becomes red. Therefore the sun accelerates away
    from us at high speed everyday.
    Do not doubt the law (God?) of Red Shift.

  36. Everything is moving at light speed when it is viewed at a big enough distance. If we only look at a distance of say 10 meters around us, everything is at rest. If we look at the entire Earth from a space station, the Earth is then seen to be revolving round the Sun at 29.79 kilometers per sec.If can look at the Earth and the Sun at the same time (which we cannot do on Earth)we can see the Earth moving at 230 kilometers per sec.( 29.79 km/sec. plus the Sun's speed revolving round the Milky Way). If we can see the Earth, the Sun, and the Milky Way together (which we can't on Earth) the Earth will be seen to have an extra speed of the Milky Way in the Local Galaxy Cluster, and so on. When we look at a distant galaxy billions of light years away, we cannot see our Earth moving because we are on it ,but we can experience our Earth's velocity relative to the distant galaxy,which is the speed of light.

  37. This is a good example of why creationists will never disappear. Respected scientists talking out of both sides or their mouths. Matter and energy both can and cannot move faster than the speed of light.

  38. All celestial bodies have a fixed path and none of them travel that fast. Scientists are lying like they usually do. I laugh at their lies: two stars collide to make a single nova star, lmao.

  39. This is BS and every scientist knows it. Most are too afraid to speak out for fear of being defunded or even sacked. The mathematicians have ruined science. The pope has endorsed the big bang theory, but the pope also agreed that the sun went round the earth!

  40. all info here is the best it can be for the moment. For every exact question, there is an exact answer.  The short answer is vortex. It is referred to as the galaxy clock. get closer goes faster. energy has no limit. See youtube video of Dr David Suvede, The galaxy clock.

  41. all the u see is actually the past !!!!! so in relativity,, all the universe is in different prospective too one another meaning the points of mass through out, the cosmos. the perfect prison.

  42. This people never learn the difference between beings and life between photons of fire 🔥 and light.

    2 Timothy 3:7
    always learning but never able to come to a knowledge of the truth.

  43. What is space and how does it varies?

    Space is the distance between gravity poles the same space on earth 🌍 in a neutron Star would squeeze to a basketball 🏀.

    Gravity is made of gravitons that is called quantum squared particle ejected from the black holes.

    Now when those gravitons increase in mass rotation and reach to newcomers a button Star and get compacted together so there is zero space left between north and south gravity poles and gravitons and the weight is heavenly enough than the poles of gravitons reopen into a dark matter and everything collapses and like is a stone mill making flour. That is food for new galactic star formation and also make micro waves like the ocean of dark matter.

    Dark matter is faster than the speed of photons

    how much faster is a dark matter particle than photon?

    186000 miles a sec. so photon becomes visible okay 👌

    But here is a intellectual question huh?

    How can something 186000 miles cube be invisible huh?

    That is a dark matter invisible particle.

    Isaiah 29:14
    Therefore once more I will astound these people with wonder upon wonder; the wisdom of the wise will perish, the intelligence of the intelligent will vanish."

  44. Because not only are the far out galaxies moving near the speed of light with in the universe, but the universe itself is also expanding like a balloon so that everything within the universe is growing farther and farther apart including space itself. But reality is only relative to the point of view of the observer ,and those in motion would not see it as anything but normal space time .so if you think your seeing something faster then light maybe you should get up and go find a better seat to view reality from.

  45. hey there Mr. Commentator man, hi, yea great video so far, love it. however you did seem to mispronounce the word "Billion" its pronounced " BILLLLLLION (Carl Sagan voice)"

  46. It seems like a whole collection of institutions and careers were built around the theory that there was a universal speed limit of c. Now the stars and galaxies are disappearing so it is obvious that they must be traveling faster than c. oh-oh. So we make up a new theory – space is being created – yeah! that;s it! that way we can keep c for the speed limit for the old theories and exceed c for the new theories of space. That way we get to keep this edifice of crap science we have built, and our jobs.

  47. Do not remember who sad that but Andromeda and Milky Way will collide to each other .In cosmic time going to be billions years from now But is on the way.
    Also that means for me "The Cosmos is turning around in same way as the Moon to the Earth ,as Earth to the sun and as out Solar system moving around the center of the Milky Way.What about that ? "Nothing new under the Sun "-Profit Solomon said 3.000 y ago!!!
    That also means somehow our galaxy could meet some galaxy which pass it time ago .Think about it !!!

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